Effective writing instruction: From Japanese danraku to English paragraphs

Appendix 1:

Three unedited student English essays

Essay A
I think that making of English the second official language is good thing. This may become occasion to change present situation of Japan, for example education system, Japaneses' will for studying English and so on. The way of teaching English, that forcus on writing, reading and don't practice speaking, has a lot of problems. Actually I had studied English for about 7 years, before junior high school, at high school and at high school. Especially at high school, I had studied English really really hard. Why? Because for entrance examination to Tokyo University of Foreign studies. Now I also study English at the university. It's ninth years since I started English. So I can write and read not only easy document, but also a little difficult one. However, I can't do listening and speaking well. Why? I did study English for 9 years! I know the reason. Because I spent almost time of nine years to write and read. I knew that this style of studying wasn't good and I needed to practice speaking and listening. So I tried to get chance talk with some foreigners or native teachers, but such a practice or relationship wasn't continued. At a result, even now I can't speak English very well. That is to say, what I really want to emphasize is . . . even though government make English the second official language, there is limit. Only that is not enough. Situation will change only a little. It depends on oneself if you will get ability of English and a working knowledge of English or not. It can say to me.
Essay B
I doubt making English the second official language would change the current situation. Though English is not the second official language, the Japanese are taught English at school and no other language is not taught officially at school. But most people are not interested in mastering English. And I think there is another cause. It is the way English is taught. English courses in Japan tend to concentrate the grammars and force students to memorize. So I think it's natural that there are many people who hates English. In such a situation, making English as the second official language is very unrealistic. There is few people who can use English without difficult, but is very strange to make a language an official language in order to make people acquired with the language. A language can be an official language generally because the language is used by many people. If Japan make English as the second official language, English won't be it truly. What is important is the will of the Japanese to master English – not the force on them to master it. So I think if the government wants the Japanese to master English, it should work on them from a different direction. For example, it can give to them occasion to touch English raise the level of English teachers.
Essay C
Note: Sentence numbers were added by the authors.
(1)In my opinion, I think that English as the second official language is easier than the other languages because of its easiness of grammar. (2)For example, now I learn Polish which is difficult to master. (3)If you learn other languages, you will find how easy to study English. (4)Next, when you go shopping on the street, you meet a foreigner and he (or she) asks you teach him (or her) the way to the post office in English, can you answer it early and correctly? (5)Maybe you don't have confidence. (6)So, if you can speak English, you communicate with foreigners, and you can make friends all over the world. (7)I think this is so-called "globalization." (8)From them, you can learn foreign cultures. (9)If you cannot speak English, maybe you stay in Japan from birth to death. (10)Some of those who can't speak English say, "English is too difficult for me to study!" (11)But I want to ask you why baby can speak. (12)English languages is not difficult. (13)Until you overcome the "Language complex", never you speak English. (14)You don't have to speak English perfectly. (15)Try to speak English doing body action and have confidence and you can make communication with them. (16)To learn English is very interesting. (17)So, I agree with the opinion of making English the second official language in Japan.

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