An examination of situational sensitivity
in medium-scale interlanguage pragmatics research

Appendix 1: Speech act codes

With the exception of number 45, "Attention," categories and basic
descriptions of these speech act codes are taken from Clarke (1984, pp. 285-287).

Code Description Example
03 -
Implies guilt on the part of the other. Differs from blame since it is not causally connected with a specific result. "You do not want to celebrate me." (DCT2, no. 391)
04 -
Suggests, recommends, proposes, or urges. Advocates that another take some course of action to his or her own advantage. Includes conventionally indirect advice. "Why don't you rise a temperature?" (DCT1, no. 122)
07 -
Shows penitence, compunction, or remorse. "I'm sorry, I want you to turn down the cooler." (DCT1, no. 186)
08 -
States, assesses, reckons, reports, suggests "it to be the case that...", informs, mentions, tells, postulates, confides, describes. This category should only be used when more specific ones do not apply. "It's too rude to open someone's closet without her permission." (DCT3, no. 326)
09 -
Back-channels communication showing attention, understanding, and a willingness to go on listening, e.g., "I see," "Uh-huh," "Mmm," etc. are used for utterances that cannot be understood without assuming some previous utterances by the listening. "Then, what will you buy me instead of a MD player?" (DCT2, no. 286)
10 -
Bid farewell
Takes leave, says "goodbye" in some way. "Bye..." (DCT5, no. 226)
11 -
Reproaches, recriminates, criticizes, grumbles, punishes, shames, exposes, degrades, deprecates, scolds, or ridicules. Differs from accuse in referring to a specific effect on the speaker. "You give me a pain." (DCT7, no. 126)
14 -
Encourages, reassures, boosts morale. "I know you can do it." (DCT11, no. 292)
15 -
Directs, instructs, requires, compels, forces, obliges, orders. Used particularly when the speaker requires the listener to engage in activities for the speaker's benefit. Includes forms such as "stop doing x". "Please fix it." (DCT12, no. 188)
18 -
Admits to, accepts the responsibility for (some misdemeanor). "Of course I lost my password, it's realy sorry." (DCT10, no. 131)
21 -
Refutes, disputes, argues, repudiates, contradicts, corrects, revises. "I didn't treat it badly." (DCT2, no. 322)
25 -
Warrants, explains (behavior or speech), accounts for, legitimizes. Often marked by "so" or "because." "This soup is too salty so I can't drink it." (DCT9, no. 334)
28 -
Humiliates, curses, attacks, insults, abuses, embarrasses, annoys, or harasses. Constitutes an attack on the listener as a person, rather than on his/her actions. "You have no manners!" (DCT8, no. 109)
29 -
Invites, makes some course of action available to the other at some cost to oneself (cf. Permit). "If you want to smoke, go outside and don't smoke in this room." (DCT6, no. 305)
33 -
Congratulates, applauds, commends, approves, exalts "The meal which my mother made is very delicious, but this soup is little salty." (DCT9, no. 352)
34 -
Forbids, prevents, or quashs. Includes all negative constructions for directives. "Please, don't go away for such a long time." (DCT7, no. 281)
35 -
Commits (oneself to...), undertakes, vows, contracts, guarantees. Benefits or neutral to the listener. "If you buy it for me, I'll study more." (DCT2, no. 310)
36 -
Enquires, asks about, expresses doubt about. "Is it noisy the music from my room?" (DCT3, no. 376)
37 -
To not carry out some response obligation arising from the speech or behavior of another. "I don't pay money of broken part." (DCT12, no. 181)
39 -
Asks to, pleads, entreats, begs. Used when the speaker asks for some course of action on the part of the listener, which is for the speaker's benefit. Includes conventionally indirect requests. "Could you check it?" (DCT5, no. 248)
42 -
Expresses gratitude, rewards. "Thank you for nice songs every day but I don't like your terrible song." (DCT3, no. 315)
43 -
Announces that the speaker may harm the listener in some way. Differs from Promise in that it is a detriment to the listener. "If you can't stop, I will call police." (DCT8, no. 121)
44 -
Urges restraint or caution, advocates that the hearer refrain from some course of action for the listener's benefit. "If we are always late for class [grades] will be bad." (DCT11, no. 260)
45 -
Attracts the listener's attention at the onset of an interaction or episode. Note: This is our own addition. "Excuse me, I asked you to give me a new password two weeks before." (DCT12, no. 129)

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