Can we validly translate questionnaire items
[ p. 11 ]
1. Was the E-doc validated?|
2. Is it possible for test items to be validly translated?
3. Was the J-doc validated?
Was the J-doc validated?
[ p. 12 ]Clearly, then, there were differences between the questionnaire results in English and Japanese. The high discrepancy in this study warms us that the researcher should not simply consider translation as the answer to help the respondent understand the questionnaire better. (p. 87).
[ p. 13 ]References